A total of 155 patients accepted and attended a screening visit. Of these, 53 patients declined to participate before randomisation. Information on patients’ reasons for refusing to participate was not collected. This is despite the fact that if data are missing because participants were unable to complete the test for health reasons this might be informative.To deal with these research gaps, we used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development https://www.pandorajewelryuk.com/, the oldest British birth cohort study. We used comparable models to examine the associations between three objective measures of physical capability (grip strength, chair rise speed, and standing balance time) assessed at age 53, and a composite score of these measures, and all cause mortality rates over 13 years of follow up; assessed the added value of each of the measures of physical capability; and examined whether being unable to perform each of these tests was associated with mortality. We also tested whether the main associations were independent of important covariates.We hypothesised that there would be associations between lower levels of physical capability and higher rates of all cause mortality but that these associations might be non linear, with stronger associations found among those with lower performance levels.

Independent assessors (n=23) were recruited on a geographical basis to evaluate the outcomes. They were trained and accredited in the assessment techniques.We had collected data for babies born between 22 and 25 completed weeks of gestation in 1995 using similar methods.10Evaluation methodsSurvival to discharge was evaluated as part of the neonatal study described in the accompanying paper.1 The Office for National Statistics provided information on deaths from discharge to 3 years of age.Outcome evaluation: developmentThe assessors were trained to use the cognitive and language scales from the third edition of the Bayley scales of infant development (Pearson Assessment pandora jewellery, London, UK).15 Two observers (SJJ and TM) then independently evaluated the assessors’ technique by video recordings and achieved more than 90% agreement on an item to item basis.In the original EPICure cohort we used the second edition of the Bayley scales of infant development, but this tool was discontinued just before the start of this study. Therefore in a subgroup of 208 children included in the EPICure 2 cohort we undertook combined testing with both the cognitive and language scales of the third edition and the mental development index of the second edition, which has been reported elsewhere.16 The relation between the two scores was not a simple offset and thus to facilitate direct comparison with data from 1995 we used a polynomial equation16 to convert all Bayley III scores to a predicted mental development index.

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